Internet of Things

Internet of things is the networking of physical objects that contain electronics embedded within their architecture in order to communicate and sense interactions amongst each other or with respect to the external environment. IoT-based technology offering advanced levels of services and practically change the way people lead their daily lives. Advancements in medicine, power, gene therapies, agriculture, smart cities, and smart homes are just a very few of the categorical examples where IoT is strongly established.

There are four main components used in IoT:

  1. Low-power embedded systems –
    Less battery consumption, high performance are the inverse factors play a significant role during the design of electronic systems.
  2. Cloud computing –
    Data collected through IoT devices is massive and this data has to be stored on a reliable storage server. This is where cloud computing comes into play. The data is processed and learned, giving more room for us to discover where things like electrical faults/errors are within the system.
  3. Availability of big data –
    We know that IoT relies heavily on sensors, especially real-time. As these electronic devices spread throughout every field, their usage is going to trigger a massive flux of big data.
  4. Networking connection –
    In order to communicate, internet connectivity is a must where each physical object is represented by an IP address. However, there are only a limited number of addresses available according to the IP naming. Due to the growing number of devices, this naming system will not be feasible anymore. Therefore, researchers are looking for another alternative naming system to represent each physical object.

There are two ways of building IoT:

  1. Form a separate internetwork including only physical objects.
  2. Make the Internet ever more expansive, but this requires hard-core technologies such as rigorous cloud computing and rapid big data storage (expensive).

Some communication devices in IoT:

  • Sensors: Devices which converts physical parameters like temperature, motion etc… into the electrical signals .Smart sensors are the indispensable enablers of IoT.

Imagine a scenario of automated monitoring of a farm such that it will just indicate the current situation of crops like “4 crops need water, Now I’m going to pour it” and then it will satisfy the crop’s need.

This wonder is because of the IoT technology behind it,

  • The temperature sensor connected with plant pot detects the low temperature.
  • Then it triggers the microprocessor platforms such as Raspberry-Pi, Arduino boards.
  • It receives the sensor signals through internet pathways such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth.
  • Then it notifies the user and the motion sensor connected to the tap which turns on to pour it.


Devices which is a contrast to sensors. It transforms electrical signals into physical movements. Both sensors and actuators are transducers which converts one form of energy to other. Exchange of datais the most important key factor in IoT. Hence sensors and actuators play a vital role here.

RFID Tags:

Wireless microchips used for automatic unique identification of anything by tagging it over them. You have been seen it in credit cards, automobile ignition keys and so on.

Characteristics of IoT:

  • Massively scalable and efficient
  • IP-based addressing will no longer be suitable in the upcoming future.
  • An abundance of physical objects is present that does not use IP, so IoT is made possible.
  • Devices typically consume less power. When not in use, they should be automatically programmed to sleep.
  • A device that is connected to another device right now may not be connected in another instant of time.
  • Intermittent connectivity – IoT devices aren’t always connected. In order to save bandwidth and battery consumption, devices will be powered off periodically when not in use. Otherwise, connections might turn unreliable and thus prove to be inefficient.

As a quick note, IoT incorporates trillions of sensors, billions of smart systems, and millions of applications.

Application Domains:

IoT is currently found in four different popular domains:

1) Manufacturing/Industrial business – 40.2%

2) Healthcare – 30.3%

3) Security – 7.7%

4) Retail – 8.3%

Modern Applications:

  1. Smart Grids
  2. Smart cities
  3. Smart homes
  4. Healthcare
  5. Earthquake detection
  6. Radiation detection/hazardous gas detection
  7. Smartphone detection
  8. Water flow monitoring

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