Routing information Protocol (RIP)
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- RIP is a dynamic routing Protocol
- RiIP is a distance vector routing protocol
Distance: How far away the distance is from the source means it keep record of the hop count.
Vector: Which directions, in routing word we are about which interface and the IP-address of the next router it send it to.
Distance vector routing is also referred as ROUTING BY RUMOUR.
- RIP is application layer protocol and it uses UDP PORT No – 520
- RIP uses concept of update to share their routing table to the neighboring routers and these updates are periodic in nature.
- RIP versions:
- RIPV1: send update on broadcast address i.e 255.255.255.255
- RIPV2: send updates on multicast address i.e 220.127.116.11
- RIPng: RIP next generation.
- RIP is a classless routing protocol by default means RIP don’t carry subnet mask with their routing updates.
- RIP supports maximum15 hop counts.
- AD value of RIP = 120.
- Metric in RIP = hop Count.
- RIP uses the bellman-Ford Distance Vector algorithm to determine the best “path” to a particular destination.
- Update : 30 seconds
- Invalid Timer: 180 Seconds
- Hold-Down Timer: 180 Seconds
- Flush Timer: 240 seconds
RIP Loop Avoidance Mechanism:
- Split-Horizon: It states that if a router receives any update from an interface, then it will not send the same update from that particular interface, in order to prevent loops in the topology. Split-horizon is enable by default on cisco Routers.
- Rote- Poisoning – whenever, a network goes down on a router, then an update is sent out of all the interface with an infinity metric for that network. Metric=16 in RIP indicates that the route goes down.
- Hold-Down Timer: Prevent RIP from accepting any new updates for router in a hold-down state, until the hold-down timer expires.
Drawbacks of RIP:
- It is not a scalable protocol.
- Slow convergence.
- It sends periodic update after every 30 sec which result in consumption of link bandwidth.
- Pin-hole congestion.
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